Metabolism

The chemical reactions that go on in the body. Often used to refer to aerobic respiration.

Metabolic rate

The amount of energy needed to keep the body alive. Usually measured as the amount of aerobic respiration.

Thyroid hormones

Also known as T3 and T4. They increase the metabolic rate.

Anabolism

Building up body compounds (like fat or muscle)

Anabolic steroids

Hormones based on testosterone, which cause the body to perform anabolism

Catabolism

The breaking down of large molecules into small ones, which can be either released into the blood or metabolized for energy

Catabolic hormones

Hormones that cause catabolism. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and glucagon

Digestion

The actual breaking down of food molecules into smaller molecules

Absorbtion

The process of moving digested food from the GI tract into the blood

Lipoproteins

Lipids with a protein coating on them, so they can travel in the blood without coming together in large blobs.

Chylomicrons

The biggest lipoproteins, produced by the intestines and sent to the liver

VLDLs and LDLs, or ‘bad cholesterol’

Very low density – and low density-lipoproteins. These deliver fat to cells.

HDLs or ‘good cholesterol’

These pick up fat from cells where it is stored and take it to cells that are going to burn it for fuel.

Insulin

A hormone produced by the pancreas after you eat. It allows cells to pick up food so they can either store it or burn it to make ATP.

Glucagon

A hormone produced by the pancreas when your blood sugar is low (your GLUcose is GONe). It makes cells release stored foods into the blood so other cells can get them.

Ketones

When you break down stored protein and fat , the amino acids and fatty acids released into the blood are converted into ketones by the liver. The brain can use ketones for food.

Glycogen

Means ‘sugar maker.’ This is the form in which sugar is stored in your cells.